School Improvement in Maryland
What do the assessments test? Algebra/Data Analysis

Functions & Algebra | Data Analysis & Probability

The High School Assessments student's knowledge of Core Learning Goals at the indicator level. Some indicators have assessment limits which indicate more specifically what will be assessed. Assessment items and other instructional resources at the indicator level can be viewed in the CLG Toolkit.

Goal 3 Data Analysis And Probability

The student will demonstrate the ability to apply probability and statistical methods for representing and interpreting data and communicating results, using technology when needed.


3.1 The student will collect, organize, analyze, and present data.


3.1.1 The student will design and/or conduct an investigation that uses statistical methods to analyze data and communicate results.

Assessment limits:
  • The student will design investigations stating how data will be collected and justify the method.
  • Types of investigations may include: simple random sampling, representative sampling, and probability simulations.
  • Probability simulations may include the use of spinners, number cubes, or random number generators.
  • In simple random sampling each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen and the members of the sample are chosen independently of each other. Sample size will be given for these investigations.

3.1.2 The student will use the measures of central tendency and/or variability to make informed conclusions.

Assessment limits:
  • Measures of central tendency include mean, median, and mode.
  • Measures of variability include range, interquartile range, and quartiles.
  • Data may be displayed in a variety of representations which may include: frequency tables, box and whisker plots, and other displays.

3.1.3 The student will calculate theoretical probability or use simulations or statistical inference from data to estimate the probability of an event.

Assessment limits:
  • This indicator does not include finding probabilities of dependent events.

3.2 The student will apply the basic concepts of statistics and probability to predict possible outcomes of real-world situations.


3.2.1 The student will make informed decisions and predictions based upon the results of simulations and data from research.

3.2.2 The student will interpret data and/or make predictions by finding and using a line of best fit and by using a given curve of best fit.

Assessment limits:
  • Items should include a definition of the data and what it represents.
  • Data will be given when a line of best fit is required.
  • Equation or graph will be given when a curve of best fit is required.

3.2.3 The student will communicate the use and misuse of statistics.

Assessment limits:
  • Examples of “misuse of statistics” include the following:
    • misuse of scaling on a graph
    • misuse of measures of central tendency and variability to represent data,
    • using three-dimensional figures inappropriately
    • using data to sway interpretation to a predetermined conclusion
    • using incorrect sampling techniques
    • using data from simulations incorrectly
    • predicting well beyond the data set.
Date: 8/2004