Science Grade 8 Student Monitoring Plan

Name: School Year:      
 
Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.
Constructing Knowledge
  Design, analyze, or carry out simple investigations and formulate appropriate conclusions based on data obtained or provided.
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Explain that scientists differ greatly in what phenomena they study and how they go about their work.
           
Explain and provide examples that all hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not to be true, if they lead to fruitful investigations.
           
Explain that if more than one variable changes at the same time in an investigation, the outcome of the investigation may not be clearly attributable to any one of the variables.
           
Give reasons for the importance of waiting until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as correct.
           
Use mathematics to interpret and communicate data.
           

 
Applying Evidence and Reasoning
  Review data from a simple experiment, summarize the data, and construct a logical argument about the cause-and-effect relationships in the experiment.
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Verify the idea that there is no fixed set of steps all scientists follow, scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected evidence.
           
Explain that what people expect to observe often affects what they actually do observe and that scientists know about this danger to objectivity and take steps to try to avoid it when designing investigations and examining data.
           
Describe the reasoning that lead to the interpretation of data and conclusions drawn.
           
Question claims based on vague statements or on statements made by people outside their area of expertise.
           

 
Communicating Scientific Information
  Develop explanations that explicitly link data from investigations conducted, selected readings and, when appropriate, contributions from historical discoveries.
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Organize and present data in tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.
           
Interpret tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words the relationships they show.
           
Criticize the reasoning in arguments in which
  • Fact and opinion are intermingled
  • Conclusions do not follow logically from the evidence given.
  • Existence of control groups and the relationship to experimental groups is not made obvious.
  • Samples are too small, biased, or not representative.
           
Explain how different models can be used to represent the same thing. What kind of a model to use and how complex it should be depend on its purpose. Choosing a useful model is one of the instances in which intuition and creativity come into play in science, mathematics, and engineering
           

 
Technology

January 2008

 

Science Grade 8 Student Monitoring Plan

Name: School Year:      
 
Earth/Space Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.
Earth History
  Explain how sedimentary rock is formed periodically, embedding plant and animal remains and leaving a record of the sequence in which the plants and animals appeared and disappeared.
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Explain how sedimentary rock buried deep enough may be reformed by pressure and heat and these re-formed rock layers may be forced up again (uplift) to become land surface and even mountains.
           
Cite evidence to confirm that thousands of layers of sedimentary rock reveal the long history of the changing surface of the Earth.
           

 
  Recognize and explain that fossils found in layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence of changing life forms.
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Recognize and explain that the fossil record of plants and animals describes changes in life forms over time.
           

 
Astronomy
  Identify and explain celestial phenomena using the regular and predictable motion of objects in the solar system.
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Identify and describe the relationships among the period of revolution of a planet, the length of its solar year, and its distance from the sun.
           
Identify and explain the relationship between the rotation of a planet or moon on its axis and the length of the solar day for that celestial object.
           
Identify and explain the cause of the phases of the moon.
           

 
  Recognize and explain the effects of the tilt of Earth's axis.
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Recognize and describe that as Earth orbits the sun, the tilt of Earth's axis causes
  • Changes in the angle of the sun in the sky during the year
  • Seasonal differences in the northern and southern latitudes
           

 
Interactions of Hydrosphere and Atmosphere
  Cite evidence to explain the relationship between the hydrosphere and atmosphere.
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Recognize and describe the water cycle as the distribution and circulation of Earth's water through the glaciers, surface water, groundwater, oceans, and atmosphere.
           
Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation in a geographic area are affected by surface features and changes in atmospheric and ocean content.
  • Relative location of mountains
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Proximity (closeness) to large bodies of water
  • Heat energy of ocean currents
           

 
  Identify and describe the atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions related to weather systems.
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Identify and describe weather patterns associated with high and low pressure systems and the four frontal systems using appropriate data displays including weather maps.
           
Identify and describe the atmospheric and hydrospheric conditions associated with the formation and development of hurricanes, tornadoes, and thunderstorms.
           

 

January 2008

 

Science Grade 8 Student Monitoring Plan

Name: School Year:      
 
Life Science: The students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.
Evolution
  Recognize and describe that evolutionary change in species over time occurs as a result of natural variation in organisms and environmental changes.
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Recognize and describe that gradual (climatic) and sudden (floods and fires) changes in environmental conditions affect the survival of organisms and populations.
           
Recognize that adaptations may include variations in structures, behaviors, or physiology, such as spiny leaves on a cactus, birdcalls, and antibiotic resistant bacteria.
           

 

January 2008

 

Science Grade 8 Student Monitoring Plan

Name: School Year:      
 
Chemistry: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations.
Structure of Matter
  Provide evidence to explain how compounds are produced.(No electron transfer)
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Describe how elements form compounds and molecules.
           
Investigate and describe what happens to the properties of elements when they react chemically with other elements.
           
Based on data from investigations and research compare the properties of compounds with those of the elements from which they are made.
           

 
Conservation of Matter
  Provide evidence to support the fact that the idea of atoms explains conservation of matter.
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Use appropriate tools to gather data and provide evidence that equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses.
           
Give reasons to justify the statement, "If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same."
           

 
States of Matter
  Describe how the motion of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases changes as heat energy is increased or decreased.
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Describe what the temperature of a solid, or a liquid, or a gas reveals about the motion of its atoms and molecules.
           

 
Physical and Chemical Changes
  Cite evidence and give examples of chemical properties of substances.
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Based on data from investigations and research, identify and describe chemical properties of common substances.
  • Reacts with oxygen (rusting/tarnishing and burning
  • Reacts with acids (dissolves metal)
  • Reacts with bases (forms soap)
           
Use information gathered from investigations using indicators and the pH scale to classify materials as acidic, basic, or neutral.
           

 
  Provide evidence to support the fact that common substances have the ability to change into new substances.
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Provide examples to explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.
           

 

January 2008

 

Science Grade 8 Student Monitoring Plan

Name: School Year:      
 
Physics: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur
Mechanics
  Develop an explanation of motion using the relationships among time, distance, velocity, and acceleration.
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Observe, describe, and compare the motions of objects using position, speed, velocity, and the direction.
           
Compare accelerated and constant motions using time, distance, and velocity.
           

 
  Identify and relate formal ideas (Newton's Laws) about the interaction of force and motion to real world experiences.
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Investigate and explain the interaction of force and motion that causes objects that are at rest to move.
           
Demonstrate and explain, through a variety of examples, that moving objects will stay in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
           
Investigate and collect data from multiple trials, about the motion that explain the motion that results when the same force acts on objects of different mass; and when different amounts of force act on objects of the same mass.
           

 
  Recognize and explain that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather it changes form or is transferred through the action of forces.
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Observe and describe the relationship between the distance an object is moved by a force and the change in its potential energy or kinetic energy, such as in a slingshot, in mechanical toys, the position of an object and its potential energy.
           

 
Thermodynamics
  Describe and cite evidence that heat can be transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.
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Based on observable phenomena, identify and describe examples of heat being transferred through conduction and through convection.
           
Based on observable phenomena, identify examples to illustrate that radiation does not require matter to transfer heat energy.
           

 
  Identify and explain that heat energy is a product of the conversion of one form of energy to another.
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Identify and describe the various forms of energy that are transformed in order for systems (living and non-living) to operate.
  • Chemical - Flashlight battery-Light
  • Mechanical - Pulleys-Motion
  • Solar/Radiant - Solar calculator
  • Chemical - Plant cells
           
Explain that some heat energy is always lost from a system during energy transformations.
           

 

January 2008

 

Science Grade 8 Student Monitoring Plan

Name: School Year:      
 
Environmental Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.
Environmental Issues
  Recognize and explain how human activities can accelerate or magnify many naturally occurring changes.
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Based on data from research identify and describe how natural processes change the environment.
  • Cyclic climate change
  • Sedimentation in watersheds
  • Population cycles
  • Extinction
           
Identify and describe how human activities produce changes in natural processes:
  • Climate change
  • Loss of habitat due to construction
  • Hunting and fishing
  • Introduction of nonnative species
  • Cycling of matter
           

 

January 2008