School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Curriculum: Reading/ELA, Grade 2

Reading/ELA | Informational | Literary | Writing | Language | Listening | Speaking

Clarifications: Each clarification provides an explanation of an indicator/objective to help teachers better understand the skills and/or concepts.

Standard 2.0 Comprehension of Informational Text

Indicator 5. Identify and explain the author's use of language


To show proficiency of the skills stated in this indicator, a reader will be able to identify and explain an author's use of language, specific words or phrases that contribute to the meaning of the text. This may include the author's choice of specific words and figurative language. These words are purposeful and give clues to readers about the meaning and tone of a text or portion of a text. Used in conjunction with other text elements, the author's use of language assists readers in constructing meaning.

An early reader identifies specific words or phrases used in informational texts or portions of texts for emphasis, clarity, or persuasion. Early readers may encounter significant words, similes, content vocabulary, and words associated with persuasion or feelings. By recognizing different types of word choices that authors use to inform the reader about a topic, the reader is better able to construct meaning from the text.

To recognize specific words and punctuation that create tone, an early reader must first know that tone expresses the author's attitude about the topic. The words, punctuation and details about the topic that a writer chooses to include in the text help create the tone. The author's tone about the topic could be serious, playful, angry, sad, etc. For example, in a letter of complaint to the principal about the shortened recess, the tone could be angry based on the choice of words and punctuation marks.

As readers encounter different forms of informational text they recognize the significance of repeated words. When early readers monitor their reading they recognize that a word or phrase that is repeated either exactly or closely several times in a section of text signals that the author is drawing attention to that idea because of its importance to the rest of the text. Understanding that this repeated word or phrase is important will help focus the readers' understanding of the important ideas and concepts in the text.