School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Curriculum: Reading/ELA, Grade 2

Reading/ELA | Informational | Literary | Writing | Language | Listening | Speaking

Clarifications: Each clarification provides an explanation of an indicator/objective to help teachers better understand the skills and/or concepts.

Standard 3.0 Comprehension of Literary Text

Indicator 1. Develop comprehension skills by reading a variety of self-selected and assigned literary texts


To demonstrate proficiency of the skills in this indicator, a reader must listen to, read and discuss a variety of self-selected and assigned literary texts and through this reading develop, apply, and refine comprehension skills. It is essential that a reader have knowledge of a wide variety of literary forms and genres that represent diverse cultures and that a reader engages in active learning with these forms and genres.

There is a wide variety of literary texts which a reader may access in both print and non-print form. Certain of these texts may define cultural elements or diversities such as customs, language, food, religion, traditions, or elements of a geographic region. Other texts may have a point of view that controls completely the amount of or types of details a reader has access to which may ultimately create a bias for or against a particular subject or idea. Still other texts may focus on ethnic groups which help a reader appreciate the characteristics, language, and customs of that group. Or a text may be set during a particular time period where elements of the setting may indicate a past, present, or future placement.

Two broad divisions of literary text are fiction and nonfiction. Fiction tells imaginary stories while nonfiction tells about real people, places, and events.

Examples of literary nonfiction include:

  • Biography — story of a person's life written by someone else
  • Autobiography — a person tells about his or her own life
  • Memoir — type of autobiography, usually about a significant experience in the author's life
  • Journal — a personal record of experiences or reflections

Examples of literary fiction appropriate for learners of this age include:

  • Play — literature intended to be performed by actors in front of an audience; includes script with dialogue, a cast of characters, and stage direction
  • Poetry — stories, ideas, and feelings expressed in compact, imaginative, often musical language
  • Stories
    • Folktales — stories passed by word of mouth from generation to generation
    • Fairy tales — stories about imaginary beings possessing magical powers
    • Fables — brief tales that teach lessons about human nature
    • Realistic fiction — stories set in the modern world
    • Historical fiction — stories set in the past, may reference actual people and events
    • Fantasy — literature that contains fantastic or unreal elements

When a reader has a broad range of experiences with different types of literary texts, that reader is equipped to draw conclusions about the similarities and differences between and among texts of varying forms, genres, and multiple diversities.