##### Unit Overview

In this unit, students begin to organize and represent categorical data. For example, if a collection of specimens is sorted into two piles based on which specimens have wings and which do not, students might present the two piles of specimens on a piece of paper, by making a group of marks for each pile, as shown below (the marks could also be circles, for example). The groups of marks should be clearly labeled to reflect the attribute in question.

The work shown in the figure is the result of an intricate process. At first, we have before us a jumble of specimens with many attributes. Then there is a narrowing of attention to a single attribute (wings or not). Then the objects might be arranged into piles. The arranging of objects into piles is then mirrored in the arranging of marks into groups. In the end, each mark represents an object; its position in one column or the other indicates whether or not that object has a given attribute.

There is no single correct way to represent categorical data – and the Standards do not require Grade 1 students to use any specific format. However, students should be familiar with mark schemes like the one show in the figure. Another format that might be useful in Grade 1 is a picture graph in which one picture represents one object. (Note that picture graphs are not an expectation in the Standards until Grade 2) If different students devise different ways to represent the same data set, then the class might discuss relative strengths and weaknesses of each scheme (SMP5)

Students’ data work in Grade 1 has important connections to addition and subtraction, as noted in Table 1 on page 4 of the K-3, Categorical Data Progression. Students in Grade 1 can ask and answer questions about categorical data based on a representation of the data. For example, with reference to the figure above, a student might ask how many specimens there were altogether, representing this problem by writing an equation such as 7 + 8 = ?. Students can also ask and answer questions leading to other kinds of addition and subtraction problems (1.OA), such as compare problems or problems involving the addition of three numbers for situations with three categories.

**Overview taken from the “Progressions for the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics – K-3 Categorical Data*.

**Essential Questions:**

- Why is data collected and analyzed?
- How can information be gathered, recorded, and organized?
- How do people use data to influence others?
- How can predictions be made based on data?
- How does the type of data influence the choice of display?
- How does the way we display data influence our interpretation of it?
- How does collecting data help us solve problems or make decisions in our world?
- Can data be sorted or organized in different ways? Is one way better than another?

A question is essential when it stimulates multi-layered inquiry, provokes deep thought and lively discussion, requires students to consider alternatives and justify their reasoning, encourges re-thinking of big ideas, makes meaningful connections with prior learning, and provides students with opportunities to apply problem-solving skills to authentic situations.

##### Unit Lesson

Additional information such as Teachers Notes, Enduring Understandings,Content Emphasis by Cluster, Focus Standards, Possible Student Outcomes, Essential Skills and Knowledge Statements and Clarifications, and Interdisciplinary Connections can be found in this Lesson Unit.

##### Available Model Lesson Plans

The lesson plan(s) have been written with specific standards in mind. Each model lesson plan is only a MODEL - one way the lesson could be developed. We have NOT included any references to the timing associated with delivering this model. Each teacher will need to make decisions related ot the timing of the lesson plan based on the learning needs of students in the class. The model lesson plans are designed to generate evidence of student understanding.

This chart indicates one or more lesson plans which have been developed for this unit. Lesson plans are being written and posted on the Curriculum Management System as they are completed. Please check back periodically for additional postings.

CCSC Alignment: 1.MD.C.4

Students will sort data into three categories and record information using a symbol to represent each student choice. They will represent data in an appropriate graph such as a picture graph and answer questions about the data such as, “Which category has more?” “Which category has less?” “How do cafeteria workers use the data we collect?” Students will solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using the information represented in the sorted sets.

##### Available Model Lesson Seeds

The lesson seed(s) have been written with specific standards in mind. These suggested activity/activities are not intended to be prescriptive, exhaustive, or sequential; they simply demonstrate how specific content can be used to help students learn the skills described in the standards. Seeds are designed to give teachers ideas for developing their own activities in order to generate evidence of student understanding.

This chart indicates one or more lesson seeds which have been developed for this unit. Lesson seeds are being written and posted on the Curriculum Management System as they are completed. Please check back periodically for additional postings.

CCSC Alignnment: 1.MD.C.4

After listening to The Gingerbread Man, students either take a first bite of a Gingerbread Man cookie or tear off one piece of a paper Gingerbread Man. They record the data based on their ‘first bites’ and determine which part was the most popular piece bitten off.