School Improvement in Maryland

Gr. 3 Unit: Develop Understanding of Fractions as Numbers

Unit Overview

This unit formally introduces fractions for the first time in the Common Core. However, fractions have been previously included in grades 1 and 2 through geometry (1.G.3 and 2.G3) and time standards (1.M.3). Students develop an understanding of the unit fraction ([image]) and how other fractions are built from that unit fraction. An example would be that ( ) is made by adding the unit fraction three times ( + + ) Students use their knowledge of whole numbers on a number line to develop their understanding of fractions on a linear model, such as a number line. They learn to identify the intervals on the number line based on the unit fraction. Students identify equivalent fractions as well as fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers by reasoning about their size.

Essential Questions:

  • What is a fraction?
  • How are fractions related to whole numbers?
  • Why is the unit fraction an essential concept in understanding fractions in general?
  • How can I use what I know about whole numbers to help me better understand fractions of a whole?
  • Why is it important to understand and be able to use equivalent fractions in mathematics or real life?
  • How are equivalent fractions generated?
  • How will my understanding of whole number factors help me understand andcommunicate equivalent fractions?
  • How are different fractions compared?
  • How can I represent fractions in multiple ways?
  • Why is it important to compare fractions as representations of equal parts of a whole or of a set?
  • If you have two fractions, how do you know which is greater or has more value?
  • How does the size of the whole or set impact the relative value of the fraction named?
  • Is of a large pizza necessarily smaller than of a small pizza? How do you know?

A question is essential when it stimulates multi-layered inquiry, provokes deep thought and lively discussion, requires students to consider alternatives and justify their reasoning, encourges re-thinking of big ideas, makes meaningful connections with prior learning, and provides students with opportunities to apply problem-solving skills to authentic situations.

Unit Lesson

Additional information such as Teachers Notes, Enduring Understandings,Content Emphasis by Cluster, Focus Standards, Possible Student Outcomes, Essential Skills and Knowledge Statements and Clarifications, and Interdisciplinary Connections can be found in this Lesson Unit.

Available Model Lesson Plans

The lesson plan(s) have been written with specific standards in mind. Each model lesson plan is only a MODEL - one way the lesson could be developed. We have NOT included any references to the timing associated with delivering this model. Each teacher will need to make decisions related ot the timing of the lesson plan based on the learning needs of students in the class. The model lesson plans are designed to generate evidence of student understanding.

This chart indicates one or more lesson plans which have been developed for this unit. Lesson plans are being written and posted on the Curriculum Management System as they are completed. Please check back periodically for additional postings.

CCSC Alignment: 3.NF.A.1

Students will identify unit fractions and build other fractions from unit fractions. They will use unit fractions to solve problems.

Available Model Lesson Seeds

The lesson seed(s) have been written with specific standards in mind. These suggested activity/activities are not intended to be prescriptive, exhaustive, or sequential; they simply demonstrate how specific content can be used to help students learn the skills described in the standards. Seeds are designed to give teachers ideas for developing their own activities in order to generate evidence of student understanding.

This chart indicates one or more lesson seeds which have been developed for this unit. Lesson seeds are being written and posted on the Curriculum Management System as they are completed. Please check back periodically for additional postings.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.1

Students use manipulatives to build the whole and then find the fractional part needed to solve the problem.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.2a

Students will represent fractions on a number line and use unit fractions in context to solve problems.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.2b & 3.NF.A.3c

Students use the number line to determine the fractional distance traveled by a pattern block.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.3a

Students use fraction manipulatives to play a game in which they use their understanding of equivalent fractions to remove different unit fractions pieces. Next they will work with ‘Egg Carton’ fraction models to compare equivalent fractions.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.3a

Students work with Cuisenaire Rods to find various equivalent fractions.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.3 & 3.NF.A.3b

Students solve problems using equivalent fractions to find equal shares.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.3 & 3.NF.A.3c

Students solve sharing problems and work with the whole as a fraction.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.3c

Students play a game in which they roll dice and cover hexagon pattern blocks to make wholes.

CCSC Alignnment: 3.NF.A.3d

Students use a numerator spinner and a denominator spinner to build fraction and them compare them