State Curriculum - Reading

Grade 2
Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes:
A. Phonemic Awareness
B. Phonics
1. Identify letters and their corresponding sounds
a. Identify digraphs, such as ch, ph, sh, th, and wh
b. Identify diphthongs, such as oy, ow, ay
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
a. Use phonics to decode words
b. Break compound words, contractions, and inflectional endings into known parts
c. Identify and apply vowel patterns to read words, such as CVC, CVCE, CVVC
d. Read blends fluently, such as spl, str
C. Fluency *
1. Read orally from familiar text at an appropriate rate
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
b. Read familiar text at a rate that is conversational and consistent
c. Reread text multiple times to increase familiarity with words
2. Read grade-level text accurately
a. Reread and self-correct while reading
b. Decode words automatically
c. Use word context clues (meaning), sentence structure (syntax), and visual clues to guide self-correction
d. Read sight words automatically
3. Read grade-level text with expression
a. Demonstrate appropriate use of phrasing when reading both familiar and unfamiliar text
  • Use punctuation marks to guide expression
  • Use intonation (emphasis on certain words) to convey meaning
D. Vocabulary
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to and independently reading a variety of literary and informational texts
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
c. Make connections to prior knowledge and new vocabulary by listening, reading, and responding to a variety of texts
d. Make inferences about the meaning of a word based on its use in a sentence
e. Identify simple multiple meaning words
f. Learn 8-12 new words each week (independent reading)
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
a. Classify and categorize words into sets and groups, such as animals, adult/baby
b. Identify and explain common antonyms, synonyms, and homophones to increase vocabulary skills
c. Identify and correctly use new words acquired through study of their relationship to other words
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
a. Determine the meaning of unknown words
  • Reread
  • Use context clues
  • Read on
  • Use text features
b. Use unfamiliar words introduced in literary and informational texts
c. Use word structure to determine meanings of words
d. Use resources to determine meaning of unknown words
  • Dictionaries
  • Textbook glossaries
  • Thesauruses
E. General Reading Comprehension
1. Develop comprehension skills through exposure to a variety of print and non-print texts, including traditional print and electronic texts
a. Listen to, read, and discuss texts representing diversity in content, culture, authorship, and perspective, including areas, such as race, gender, disability, religion, and socio-economic background
b. Self-select appropriate text for a variety of purposes
c. ** Read a minimum of 25-30 self-selected and/or assigned books representing various genres
d. Discuss reactions to and ideas/information gained from reading experiences with adults and peers in both formal and informal situations
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
a. Make and explain the connections made from prior knowledge and experiences with the text
b. Make predictions or ask questions about the text by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs/text, and familiar author or topic
c. Set a purpose for reading and identify type of text (fiction or nonfiction)
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
a. Recall and discuss what they understand
b. Identify and question what did not make sense
c. Reread difficult parts slowly and carefully and use own words to restate difficult parts
d. Read on, revisit, and restate the difficult parts in your own words
e. Make, confirm, or adjust predictions
f. Ask and answer questions about the text
g. Periodically summarize while reading
h. Visualize what was read
i. Look back through the text to search for connections between and among ideas
j. Explain personal connections to the topics, events, characters, and actions in texts
4. Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)
a. Review/restate and explain what the text is mainly about
b. Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text (details, literal meaning)
c. Identify and explain what is not stated in the text (implied or inferential meaning)
d. Summarize the text orally
e. Confirm, refute, or make predictions to form new ideas
f. Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experience
g. Engage in conversation to understand what has been read
h. Retell explicit and implicit main ideas of texts
i. Answer questions (what if, why, and how) in writing
 *: Independent level text (Put Reading First) is relatively easy text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 20 words that are difficult for the reader (95% success). Instructional level text (Put Reading First) is challenging but manageable text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader (90% success).
 **: New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.

Indicators/objectives that include assessment limits are assessed on MSA *New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.


MSDE has developed a toolkit for these standards which can be found online at: