State Curriculum - Reading

Grade K
Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes:
A. Phonemic Awareness
1. Discriminate sounds and words
a. Identify whether isolated sounds are same or different
b. Identify initial and final sounds in a word
c. Categorize words as same or different by initial or final sounds
2. Discriminate and produce rhyming words and alliteration
a. Repeat and produce rhyming words
b. Identify and repeat sentences that use alliteration
3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
a. Orally blend syllables into a whole word, such as fun-ny=funny
b. Orally blend onset and rimes (word families) into a whole word, such as b-at=bat
c. Orally blend 2-3 phonemes into one syllable words, such as m-e=me; f-u-n=fun
4. Segment and manipulate sounds in spoken words and sentences
a. Clap words in a sentence
b. Clap syllables in a word
c. Say syllables
d. Identify the initial sound in a word
e. Segment individual sounds in words
f. Substitute initial sounds in words to form new words
B. Phonics
1. Identify letters and corresponding sounds
a. Identify in isolation all upper and lower case letters of the alphabet
b. Identify letters matched to sounds
c. Generate the sounds associated with individual letters and letter patterns, such as s-, st-, -at, -ack, -ed
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
a. Identify similarities and differences in letters and words
b. Blend letter sounds in one-syllable words (CVC)
c. Use onset and rime (word families) to decode one-syllable words
C. Fluency *
1. Engage in imitative reading at an appropriate rate
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
b. Recite nursery rhymes, poems, and finger plays with expression
2. Read orally from familiar texts at an appropriate rate
a. Read familiar text with accuracy and expression
b. Use knowledge of end punctuation to signal expression in reading
c. Recognize some words by sight, such as student's first and last name, a, the, my, you, is, are
D. Vocabulary
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to and reading a variety of texts on a daily basis
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
c. Ask questions to clarify meaning about objects and words related to topics discussed
d. Listen to and identify the meaning of new vocabulary in multiple contexts
e. Listen to and identify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary
f. Read signs, labels, and environmental print
g. Collect and manipulate favorite words
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
a. Use words to describe location, size, color, and shape
b. Name pictures of common concepts, such as sleeping, running, walking
c. Use names and labels of basic concepts, such as stop, go, boys, girls, in, out, poison
d. Identify and sort pictures of common words into basic categories, such as colors, numbers, seasons
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
a. Use text and illustrations to identify meaning of unknown words
b. Use newly learned vocabulary on multiple occasions to reinforce meaning
c. Use word structure to determine meaning of words
  • Inflectional endings
d. Use resources to determine meaning of unknown words
  • Picture dictionaries
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • Posters
E. General Reading Comprehension
1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of print to determine how print is organized and read
a. Understand that speech can be written and read
b. Read a minimum of 15 books, both literary and informational
c. Identify title, cover page, front and back of book, table of contents, page numbers, and describe what information is presented on the title and cover pages
d. Track print from left to right and top to bottom
e. Make return sweep to next line of text
f. Match oral words to printed words
g. Differentiate numerals, letters and words
h. Recognize that printed words are separated by spaces
i. Recognize that letters build words and words build sentences
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
a. Make connections to the text using illustrations, photographs, and prior knowledge
b. Make predictions by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs/text, and familiar author or topic
c. Ask questions about the text by examining the title, cover, illustrations, photographs, text
d. Set a purpose for reading
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
a. Use illustrations to construct meaning from text
b. Make, confirm, or adjust predictions
c. Make comments and ask relevant questions
d. Reread sentences when meaning is not clear
e. Connect events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences
4. Demonstrate understanding of text (after reading)
a. Recall and discuss information from text
b. Respond to questions (who, what, and where) and verify answers using illustrations/text
c. Respond to text by drawing, speaking, dramatizing, or writing
d. Compare information in text with prior knowledge
e. Validate/determine the purpose for reading
f. Retell a story using text as support
 *: Independent level text (Put Reading First) is relatively easy text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 20 words that are difficult for the reader (95% success). Instructional level text (Put Reading First) is challenging but manageable text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader (90% success).

Indicators/objectives that include assessment limits are assessed on MSA *New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.


MSDE has developed a toolkit for these standards which can be found online at: