State Curriculum - Reading

Grade PK
Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes:
A. Phonemic Awareness
1. Discriminate sounds and words
a. Tell whether sounds are same or different
b. Recognize that letters represent sounds
c. Identify and repeat initial sounds in words
d. Classify words by initial sounds
2. Discriminate and produce rhyming words and alliteration
a. Repeat rhyming words
b. Repeat phrases and sentences with alliteration
c. Discriminate rhyming words from non-rhyming words
3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
a. Orally blend syllables into a whole word, such as fun-ny=funny
4. Segment sounds in spoken words and sentences
a. Clap words in a sentence
b. Identify the initial sound in a word
B. Phonics
1. Recognize that letters have corresponding sounds
a. Recognize similarities and differences in letter shapes
b. Match familiar consonant sounds to appropriate letters, such as m, b, f, t, p
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
a. Identify and name some upper and lower case letters in words, especially those in the student's own name
C. Fluency *
1. Engage in imitative reading at an appropriate rate
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
b. Recite nursery rhymes, poems, and finger plays with expression
c. Develop beginning sight vocabulary of familiar words, such as first name, color words
D. Vocabulary
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to a variety of texts on a daily basis
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
c. Asks questions about unknown objects and words related to topics discussed
d. Listen to and identify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary
e. Identify some signs, labels, and environmental print
f. Collect and play with favorite words
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
a. Use words to describe size, color, and shape
b. Name common objects shown in pictures
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
a. Use illustrations to find meaning of unknown words
b. Use newly learned vocabulary on multiple occasions to reinforce meaning
E. General Reading Comprehension
1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of print to determine how print is organized and read
a. Understand that speech can be written and read
b. Understand that print conveys meaning
c. Demonstrate the proper use of a book
d. Identify the title of a book
e. Demonstrate that text is read from left to right and top to bottom
f. Identify pictures, shapes, letters, and numerals
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
a. Make connections to the text using illustrations/photographs from prior knowledge
b. Make predictions by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs, and familiar author or topic
c. Help set a purpose for reading
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
a. Use illustrations to construct meaning
b. Make and confirm predictions
c. Connect events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences
4. Demonstrate understanding of text (after reading)
a. Recall information from text
b. Respond orally to questions
c. Respond to text in a variety of ways
  • Retell
  • Dramatize
  • Draw
d. Review the purpose for reading
e. Retell a story as though reading a book
 *: Independent level text (Put Reading First) is relatively easy text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 20 words that are difficult for the reader (95% success). Instructional level text (Put Reading First) is challenging but manageable text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader (90% success).

Indicators/objectives that include assessment limits are assessed on MSA *New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.


MSDE has developed a toolkit for these standards which can be found online at: