State Curriculum - Reading

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Grade PK Grade K Grade 1 Grade 2
Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes: Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes: Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes: Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes:
A. Phonemic Awareness A. Phonemic Awareness A. Phonemic Awareness A. Phonemic Awareness
1. Discriminate sounds and words
1. Discriminate sounds and words
1. Discriminate sounds and words
a. Tell whether sounds are same or different
a. Identify whether isolated sounds are same or different
a. Identify initial, medial, and final sounds in one-syllable words
 
b. Recognize that letters represent sounds
b. Identify initial and final sounds in a word
b. Compare one-syllable words using initial, medial, and final sounds
 
c. Identify and repeat initial sounds in words
c. Categorize words as same or different by initial or final sounds
c. Categorize words as same or different by medial sounds
 
d. Classify words by initial sounds
     
2. Discriminate and produce rhyming words and alliteration
2. Discriminate and produce rhyming words and alliteration
2. Discriminate and produce rhyming words and alliteration
a. Repeat rhyming words
a. Repeat and produce rhyming words
a. Produce sentences with rhyming and alliteration
 
b. Repeat phrases and sentences with alliteration
b. Identify and repeat sentences that use alliteration
   
c. Discriminate rhyming words from non-rhyming words
     
3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
a. Orally blend syllables into a whole word, such as fun-ny=funny
a. Orally blend syllables into a whole word, such as fun-ny=funny
a. Blend 3-4 phonemes into a word, such as f-a-s-t=fast
 
  b. Orally blend onset and rimes (word families) into a whole word, such as b-at=bat
   
  c. Orally blend 2-3 phonemes into one syllable words, such as m-e=me; f-u-n=fun
   
4. Segment sounds in spoken words and sentences
4. Segment and manipulate sounds in spoken words and sentences
4. Segment and manipulate sounds in spoken words
a. Clap words in a sentence
a. Clap words in a sentence
a. Segment words into syllables
 
b. Identify the initial sound in a word
b. Clap syllables in a word
b. Segment one-syllable words into phonemes
 
  c. Say syllables
c. Delete sounds to form new words
 
  d. Identify the initial sound in a word
d. Add sounds to form new words
 
  e. Segment individual sounds in words
e. Substitute sounds to form new words
 
  f. Substitute initial sounds in words to form new words
   
B. Phonics B. Phonics B. Phonics B. Phonics
1. Recognize that letters have corresponding sounds
1. Identify letters and corresponding sounds
1. Identify letters and corresponding sounds
1. Identify letters and their corresponding sounds
a. Recognize similarities and differences in letter shapes
a. Identify in isolation all upper and lower case letters of the alphabet
a. Produce letter/sound correspondences rapidly (1 per second)
a. Identify digraphs, such as ch, ph, sh, th, and wh
b. Match familiar consonant sounds to appropriate letters, such as m, b, f, t, p
b. Identify letters matched to sounds
b. Combine sounds to form letter combinations, such as pl-, bl-, tr-, -nt
b. Identify diphthongs, such as oy, ow, ay
  c. Generate the sounds associated with individual letters and letter patterns, such as s-, st-, -at, -ack, -ed
   
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
a. Identify and name some upper and lower case letters in words, especially those in the student's own name
a. Identify similarities and differences in letters and words
a. Recognize and apply short vowels, long vowels, and "y" as a vowel
a. Use phonics to decode words
  b. Blend letter sounds in one-syllable words (CVC)
b. Decode words with letter combinations, such as consonant digraphs, blends, and special vowel patterns
b. Break compound words, contractions, and inflectional endings into known parts
  c. Use onset and rime (word families) to decode one-syllable words
c. Read one-syllable words fluently (CVC, CVCE)
c. Identify and apply vowel patterns to read words, such as CVC, CVCE, CVVC
    d. Use known word/part to decode unknown words, such as car->card
d. Read blends fluently, such as spl, str
C. Fluency * C. Fluency * C. Fluency * C. Fluency *
1. Engage in imitative reading at an appropriate rate
1. Engage in imitative reading at an appropriate rate
1. Read orally from familiar text at an appropriate rate
1. Read orally from familiar text at an appropriate rate
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
b. Recite nursery rhymes, poems, and finger plays with expression
b. Recite nursery rhymes, poems, and finger plays with expression
b. Read familiar text at a rate that is conversational and consistent
b. Read familiar text at a rate that is conversational and consistent
c. Develop beginning sight vocabulary of familiar words, such as first name, color words
  c. Reread text multiple times to increase familiarity with words
c. Reread text multiple times to increase familiarity with words
2. Read orally from familiar texts at an appropriate rate
2. Read grade-level text accurately
2. Read grade-level text accurately
  a. Read familiar text with accuracy and expression
a. Reread and self-correct while reading
a. Reread and self-correct while reading
  b. Use knowledge of end punctuation to signal expression in reading
b. Use word context clues (meaning), sentence structure (syntax), and visual clues to guide self-correction
b. Decode words automatically
  c. Recognize some words by sight, such as student's first and last name, a, the, my, you, is, are
c. Read sight words automatically, such as have, said, where, two
c. Use word context clues (meaning), sentence structure (syntax), and visual clues to guide self-correction
      d. Read sight words automatically
3. Read grade-level text with expression
3. Read grade-level text with expression
    a. Demonstrate appropriate use of phrasing when reading familiar text
  • Use end punctuation, commas, and quotation marks to guide expression
  • Use intonation (emphasis on certain words) to convey meaning
a. Demonstrate appropriate use of phrasing when reading both familiar and unfamiliar text
  • Use punctuation marks to guide expression
  • Use intonation (emphasis on certain words) to convey meaning
D. Vocabulary D. Vocabulary D. Vocabulary D. Vocabulary
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to a variety of texts on a daily basis
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to and reading a variety of texts on a daily basis
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to and reading a variety of grade-appropriate text daily
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to and independently reading a variety of literary and informational texts
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
c. Asks questions about unknown objects and words related to topics discussed
c. Ask questions to clarify meaning about objects and words related to topics discussed
c. Ask questions to clarify meaning about objects and words related to topics discussed
c. Make connections to prior knowledge and new vocabulary by listening, reading, and responding to a variety of texts
d. Listen to and identify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary
d. Listen to and identify the meaning of new vocabulary in multiple contexts
d. Listen to and identify the meaning of new vocabulary in multiple contexts
d. Make inferences about the meaning of a word based on its use in a sentence
e. Identify some signs, labels, and environmental print
e. Listen to and identify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary
e. Connect unfamiliar words from texts, instruction and conversation to prior knowledge to enhance meaning
e. Identify simple multiple meaning words
f. Collect and play with favorite words
f. Read signs, labels, and environmental print
f. Learn 5-8 new words every week (independent reading)
f. Learn 8-12 new words each week (independent reading)
  g. Collect and manipulate favorite words
   
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
a. Use words to describe size, color, and shape
a. Use words to describe location, size, color, and shape
a. Sort grade-appropriate words with or without pictures into categories
a. Classify and categorize words into sets and groups, such as animals, adult/baby
b. Name common objects shown in pictures
b. Name pictures of common concepts, such as sleeping, running, walking
b. Identify antonyms and synonyms
b. Identify and explain common antonyms, synonyms, and homophones to increase vocabulary skills
  c. Use names and labels of basic concepts, such as stop, go, boys, girls, in, out, poison
c. Identify and use correctly new words acquired through study of their relationship to other words
c. Identify and correctly use new words acquired through study of their relationship to other words
  d. Identify and sort pictures of common words into basic categories, such as colors, numbers, seasons
   
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
a. Use illustrations to find meaning of unknown words
a. Use text and illustrations to identify meaning of unknown words
a. Determine meaning of words using their context
  • Reread
  • Use context clues
  • Examine illustrations
a. Determine the meaning of unknown words
  • Reread
  • Use context clues
  • Read on
  • Use text features
b. Use newly learned vocabulary on multiple occasions to reinforce meaning
b. Use newly learned vocabulary on multiple occasions to reinforce meaning
b. Use unfamiliar words introduced in literary and informational texts
b. Use unfamiliar words introduced in literary and informational texts
  c. Use word structure to determine meaning of words
  • Inflectional endings
c. Use word structure to determine meaning of words
c. Use word structure to determine meanings of words
  d. Use resources to determine meaning of unknown words
  • Picture dictionaries
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • Posters
d. Use resources to determine meaning of unknown words
  • Picture dictionary
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • Posters
  • Content texts
d. Use resources to determine meaning of unknown words
  • Dictionaries
  • Textbook glossaries
  • Thesauruses
E. General Reading Comprehension E. General Reading Comprehension E. General Reading Comprehension E. General Reading Comprehension
1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of print to determine how print is organized and read
1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of print to determine how print is organized and read
1. Develop comprehension skills through exposure to a variety of print and non-print texts, including traditional print and electronic texts
1. Develop comprehension skills through exposure to a variety of print and non-print texts, including traditional print and electronic texts
a. Understand that speech can be written and read
a. Understand that speech can be written and read
a. Listen to, read, and discuss text representing diversity in content, culture, authorship, and perspective, including areas, such as race, gender, disability, religion, and socio-economic background
a. Listen to, read, and discuss texts representing diversity in content, culture, authorship, and perspective, including areas, such as race, gender, disability, religion, and socio-economic background
b. Understand that print conveys meaning
b. Read a minimum of 15 books, both literary and informational
b. Self-select appropriate text for a variety of purposes
b. Self-select appropriate text for a variety of purposes
c. Demonstrate the proper use of a book
c. Identify title, cover page, front and back of book, table of contents, page numbers, and describe what information is presented on the title and cover pages
c. ** Read a minimum of 25 books representing various genres
c. ** Read a minimum of 25-30 self-selected and/or assigned books representing various genres
d. Identify the title of a book
d. Track print from left to right and top to bottom
d. Discuss ideas/information gained from reading experiences with adults and peers
d. Discuss reactions to and ideas/information gained from reading experiences with adults and peers in both formal and informal situations
e. Demonstrate that text is read from left to right and top to bottom
e. Make return sweep to next line of text
   
f. Identify pictures, shapes, letters, and numerals
f. Match oral words to printed words
   
  g. Differentiate numerals, letters and words
   
  h. Recognize that printed words are separated by spaces
   
  i. Recognize that letters build words and words build sentences
   
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
a. Make connections to the text using illustrations/photographs from prior knowledge
a. Make connections to the text using illustrations, photographs, and prior knowledge
a. Make connections to the text using their prior knowledge and experiences with the text
a. Make and explain the connections made from prior knowledge and experiences with the text
b. Make predictions by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs, and familiar author or topic
b. Make predictions by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs/text, and familiar author or topic
b. Make predictions or ask questions about the text by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs/text, and familiar author or topic
b. Make predictions or ask questions about the text by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs/text, and familiar author or topic
c. Help set a purpose for reading
c. Ask questions about the text by examining the title, cover, illustrations, photographs, text
c. Set a purpose for reading and identify type of text (fiction or nonfiction)
c. Set a purpose for reading and identify type of text (fiction or nonfiction)
  d. Set a purpose for reading
   
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
a. Use illustrations to construct meaning
a. Use illustrations to construct meaning from text
a. Recall and discuss what they understand
a. Recall and discuss what they understand
b. Make and confirm predictions
b. Make, confirm, or adjust predictions
b. Identify and question what did not make sense
b. Identify and question what did not make sense
c. Connect events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences
c. Make comments and ask relevant questions
c. Reread difficult parts slowly and carefully and use own words to restate difficult parts
c. Reread difficult parts slowly and carefully and use own words to restate difficult parts
  d. Reread sentences when meaning is not clear
d. Make, confirm, or adjust predictions
d. Read on, revisit, and restate the difficult parts in your own words
  e. Connect events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences
e. Look back through the text to search for connections between topics, events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences
e. Make, confirm, or adjust predictions
      f. Ask and answer questions about the text
      g. Periodically summarize while reading
      h. Visualize what was read
      i. Look back through the text to search for connections between and among ideas
      j. Explain personal connections to the topics, events, characters, and actions in texts
4. Demonstrate understanding of text (after reading)
4. Demonstrate understanding of text (after reading)
4. Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)
4. Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)
a. Recall information from text
a. Recall and discuss information from text
a. Describe what the text is about
a. Review/restate and explain what the text is mainly about
b. Respond orally to questions
b. Respond to questions (who, what, and where) and verify answers using illustrations/text
b. Describe what is directly stated in the text (details, literal meaning)
b. Identify and explain what is directly stated in the text (details, literal meaning)
c. Respond to text in a variety of ways
  • Retell
  • Dramatize
  • Draw
c. Respond to text by drawing, speaking, dramatizing, or writing
c. Engage in conversation to understand what has been read
c. Identify and explain what is not stated in the text (implied or inferential meaning)
d. Review the purpose for reading
d. Compare information in text with prior knowledge
d. Answer simple questions (who, what, when, where, and how) in writing
d. Summarize the text orally
e. Retell a story as though reading a book
e. Validate/determine the purpose for reading
e. Respond to text by drawing, speaking, dramatizing, or writing
e. Confirm, refute, or make predictions to form new ideas
  f. Retell a story using text as support
f. Retell the main idea of texts
f. Connect the text to prior knowledge or personal experience
      g. Engage in conversation to understand what has been read
      h. Retell explicit and implicit main ideas of texts
      i. Answer questions (what if, why, and how) in writing
 *: Independent level text (Put Reading First) is relatively easy text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 20 words that are difficult for the reader (95% success). Instructional level text (Put Reading First) is challenging but manageable text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader (90% success).
 **: New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.
 

Indicators/objectives that include assessment limits are assessed on MSA *New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.

 

MSDE has developed a toolkit for these standards which can be found online at: http://mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/reading/vsc_toolkit.html.

 

11/15/07