State Curriculum - Reading

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Grade PK Grade K
Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes: Standard 1.0 General Reading Processes:
A. Phonemic Awareness A. Phonemic Awareness
1. Discriminate sounds and words
1. Discriminate sounds and words
a. Tell whether sounds are same or different
a. Identify whether isolated sounds are same or different
b. Recognize that letters represent sounds
b. Identify initial and final sounds in a word
c. Identify and repeat initial sounds in words
c. Categorize words as same or different by initial or final sounds
d. Classify words by initial sounds
 
2. Discriminate and produce rhyming words and alliteration
2. Discriminate and produce rhyming words and alliteration
a. Repeat rhyming words
a. Repeat and produce rhyming words
b. Repeat phrases and sentences with alliteration
b. Identify and repeat sentences that use alliteration
c. Discriminate rhyming words from non-rhyming words
 
3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
3. Blend sounds and syllables to form words
a. Orally blend syllables into a whole word, such as fun-ny=funny
a. Orally blend syllables into a whole word, such as fun-ny=funny
  b. Orally blend onset and rimes (word families) into a whole word, such as b-at=bat
  c. Orally blend 2-3 phonemes into one syllable words, such as m-e=me; f-u-n=fun
4. Segment sounds in spoken words and sentences
4. Segment and manipulate sounds in spoken words and sentences
a. Clap words in a sentence
a. Clap words in a sentence
b. Identify the initial sound in a word
b. Clap syllables in a word
  c. Say syllables
  d. Identify the initial sound in a word
  e. Segment individual sounds in words
  f. Substitute initial sounds in words to form new words
B. Phonics B. Phonics
1. Recognize that letters have corresponding sounds
1. Identify letters and corresponding sounds
a. Recognize similarities and differences in letter shapes
a. Identify in isolation all upper and lower case letters of the alphabet
b. Match familiar consonant sounds to appropriate letters, such as m, b, f, t, p
b. Identify letters matched to sounds
  c. Generate the sounds associated with individual letters and letter patterns, such as s-, st-, -at, -ack, -ed
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
2. Decode words in grade-level texts
a. Identify and name some upper and lower case letters in words, especially those in the student's own name
a. Identify similarities and differences in letters and words
  b. Blend letter sounds in one-syllable words (CVC)
  c. Use onset and rime (word families) to decode one-syllable words
C. Fluency * C. Fluency *
1. Engage in imitative reading at an appropriate rate
1. Engage in imitative reading at an appropriate rate
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
a. Listen to models of fluent reading
b. Recite nursery rhymes, poems, and finger plays with expression
b. Recite nursery rhymes, poems, and finger plays with expression
c. Develop beginning sight vocabulary of familiar words, such as first name, color words
 
2. Read orally from familiar texts at an appropriate rate
  a. Read familiar text with accuracy and expression
  b. Use knowledge of end punctuation to signal expression in reading
  c. Recognize some words by sight, such as student's first and last name, a, the, my, you, is, are
D. Vocabulary D. Vocabulary
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
1. Develop and apply vocabulary through exposure to a variety of texts
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to a variety of texts on a daily basis
a. Acquire new vocabulary through listening to and reading a variety of texts on a daily basis
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
b. Discuss words and word meanings daily as they are encountered in texts, instruction, and conversation
c. Asks questions about unknown objects and words related to topics discussed
c. Ask questions to clarify meaning about objects and words related to topics discussed
d. Listen to and identify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary
d. Listen to and identify the meaning of new vocabulary in multiple contexts
e. Identify some signs, labels, and environmental print
e. Listen to and identify the meaning of content-specific vocabulary
f. Collect and play with favorite words
f. Read signs, labels, and environmental print
  g. Collect and manipulate favorite words
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
2. Develop a conceptual understanding of new words
a. Use words to describe size, color, and shape
a. Use words to describe location, size, color, and shape
b. Name common objects shown in pictures
b. Name pictures of common concepts, such as sleeping, running, walking
  c. Use names and labels of basic concepts, such as stop, go, boys, girls, in, out, poison
  d. Identify and sort pictures of common words into basic categories, such as colors, numbers, seasons
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
3. Understand, acquire, and use new vocabulary
a. Use illustrations to find meaning of unknown words
a. Use text and illustrations to identify meaning of unknown words
b. Use newly learned vocabulary on multiple occasions to reinforce meaning
b. Use newly learned vocabulary on multiple occasions to reinforce meaning
  c. Use word structure to determine meaning of words
  • Inflectional endings
  d. Use resources to determine meaning of unknown words
  • Picture dictionaries
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • Posters
E. General Reading Comprehension E. General Reading Comprehension
1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of print to determine how print is organized and read
1. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts of print to determine how print is organized and read
a. Understand that speech can be written and read
a. Understand that speech can be written and read
b. Understand that print conveys meaning
b. Read a minimum of 15 books, both literary and informational
c. Demonstrate the proper use of a book
c. Identify title, cover page, front and back of book, table of contents, page numbers, and describe what information is presented on the title and cover pages
d. Identify the title of a book
d. Track print from left to right and top to bottom
e. Demonstrate that text is read from left to right and top to bottom
e. Make return sweep to next line of text
f. Identify pictures, shapes, letters, and numerals
f. Match oral words to printed words
  g. Differentiate numerals, letters and words
  h. Recognize that printed words are separated by spaces
  i. Recognize that letters build words and words build sentences
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
a. Make connections to the text using illustrations/photographs from prior knowledge
a. Make connections to the text using illustrations, photographs, and prior knowledge
b. Make predictions by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs, and familiar author or topic
b. Make predictions by examining the title, cover, illustrations/photographs/text, and familiar author or topic
c. Help set a purpose for reading
c. Ask questions about the text by examining the title, cover, illustrations, photographs, text
  d. Set a purpose for reading
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
3. Use strategies to make meaning from text (during reading)
a. Use illustrations to construct meaning
a. Use illustrations to construct meaning from text
b. Make and confirm predictions
b. Make, confirm, or adjust predictions
c. Connect events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences
c. Make comments and ask relevant questions
  d. Reread sentences when meaning is not clear
  e. Connect events, characters, and actions in stories to specific life experiences
4. Demonstrate understanding of text (after reading)
4. Demonstrate understanding of text (after reading)
a. Recall information from text
a. Recall and discuss information from text
b. Respond orally to questions
b. Respond to questions (who, what, and where) and verify answers using illustrations/text
c. Respond to text in a variety of ways
  • Retell
  • Dramatize
  • Draw
c. Respond to text by drawing, speaking, dramatizing, or writing
d. Review the purpose for reading
d. Compare information in text with prior knowledge
e. Retell a story as though reading a book
e. Validate/determine the purpose for reading
  f. Retell a story using text as support
 *: Independent level text (Put Reading First) is relatively easy text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 20 words that are difficult for the reader (95% success). Instructional level text (Put Reading First) is challenging but manageable text for the reader, with no more than approximately 1 in 10 words difficult for the reader (90% success).
 

Indicators/objectives that include assessment limits are assessed on MSA *New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.

 

MSDE has developed a toolkit for these standards which can be found online at: http://mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/reading/vsc_toolkit.html.

 

11/15/07