School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Curriculum: Reading/ELA, Grade 8

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Writing:

Reading/ELA:

Standard 4.0 Writing

Students will compose in a variety of modes by developing content, employing specific forms, and selecting language appropriate for a particular audience and purpose.

Indicator

  • 1. Compose texts using the prewriting and drafting strategies of effective writers and speakers
Objectives
  1. Use a variety of self-selected prewriting strategies to generate, select, narrow, and develop ideas
    • Evaluate topic for personal relevance, scope, and feasibility
    • Begin a coherent plan for developing ideas
    • Explore and evaluate relevant sources of information
  2. Select, organize, and develop ideas appropriate to topic, audience, and purpose
    • Organize information logically
    • Use techniques such as graphic organizers and signal words to complete and clarify organizational structures
    • Verify the effectiveness of paragraph development by modifying topic, support, and concluding sentences as necessary

Indicator

  • 2. Compose oral, written and visual presentations that express personal ideas, inform, and persuade
Objectives
  1. Compose to express personal ideas by experimenting with a variety of forms and techniques suited to topic, audience, and purpose in order to develop a personal style, a distinctive voice, and a deliberate tone
  2. Describe in prose and/or poetic forms to clarify, extend, or elaborate on ideas by using evocative language and appropriate organizational structure to create a dominant impression
  3. Compose to inform using relevant support and appropriate organizational structures while maintaining an objective perspective
  4. Compose to persuade by supporting, modifying, or refuting a position, using effective rhetorical strategies
    • Write an assertion and use evidence that appeals to audience emotion, reasoning, or trust
    • Organize ideas to construct a logical progression
    • Use diction and syntax that is sincere, honest, and trustworthy
    • Use connotation, repetition, and figurative language to control audience emotion and reaction
    • Use authoritative citations when effective and document appropriately
  5. Use writing-to-learn strategies such as reflective journals, metacognitive writings, and projections based on reflections to analyze and synthesize thinking and learning
  6. Manage time and process when writing for a given purpose

Indicator

  • 3. Compose texts using the revising and editing strategies of effective writers and speakers
Objectives
  1. Revise texts for clarity, completeness, and effectiveness
    • Eliminate redundant and irrelevant words and ideas
    • Clarify meaning through the placement of antecedents, modifiers, connectors, and transitional devices
    • Clarify the relationships among ideas through coordination and subordination that are purposeful, logical, succinct, and parallel
    • Clarify meaning and purpose by using active voice and consistent person, number, tense, and mood
    • Vary sentence types and lengths to clarify and extend meaning, to demonstrate style, and to sustain audience interest
  2. Use suitable traditional or electronic resources to refine presentations and edit texts for effective and appropriate and conventions such as capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and pronunciation
    • Self edit
    • Peer edit
    • Dictionary
    • Thesaurus
    • Spell checker
    • Language handbook
    • Grammar checker
    • Style book
  3. Prepare the final product for presentation to an audience

Indicator

  • 4. Identify how language choices in writing and speaking affect thoughts and feelings
Objectives
  1. Choose a level of language, formal to informal, appropriate for a specific audience, situation, or purpose
  2. Differentiate connotative from denotative meanings of words to make precise word choices
  3. Consider how readers or listeners might respond differently to the same words

Indicator

  • 5. Assess the effectiveness of choice of details, organizational pattern, word choice, syntax, use of figurative language, and rhetorical devices in the student's own composing
Objectives
  1. Assess the effectiveness of diction that reveals his or her purpose
    • Language appropriate for a particular audience
    • Language suitable for a given purpose
    • Words/phrases/sentences that extend meaning in a given context
  2. Explain how the specific language and expression used by the writer or speaker affects reader/listener response
  3. Evaluate the use of transitions and their effectiveness in a text

Indicator

  • 6. Evaluate textual changes in a work and explain how these changes alter tone, clarify meaning, address a particular purpose, or fulfill a purpose
Objectives
  1. Alter the tone of one's own writing by revising its diction for a specific purpose and/or audience
  2. Justify revisions in syntax and diction from a previous draft of his or her same text by explaining how the change affects meaning

Indicator

  • 7. Locate, retrieve, and use information from various sources to accomplish a purpose
Objectives
  1. Identify, evaluate, and use appropriate sources of information on a self-selected and/or given topic
  2. Use various information retrieval sources (traditional and/or electronic) to obtain information on a self-selected and/or given topic
  3. Use a systematic process for recording, documenting, and organizing this information
    • Appropriate strategies for taking notes
      • Appropriate strategies for organizing source information or notes
      • Information to include or exclude when using a note taking method
      • Advantages, disadvantages, or limitations of a given strategy or procedure for recording or organizing information
      • Advantages, disadvantages, or limitations of asources of information such as bias, accuracy, availability, variety currency
      • Use a recognized format for documentation such as MLA
  4. Synthesize information from two or more sources to fulfill a self-selected or given purpose
  5. Use a recognized format to credit sources when paraphrasing, summarizing, and quoting to avoid plagiarism

Indicators/objectives that include assessment limits are assessed on MSA *New Standards identifies the need for students to process 1 million words per year to maintain academic progress.

11/15/07