School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Curriculum: Reading/ELA, Grade 2

Reading/ELA | Informational | Literary | Writing | Language | Listening | Speaking

Lesson Seeds: The lesson seeds are ideas for the indicator/objective that can be used to build a lesson. Lesson seeds are not meant to be all-inclusive, nor are they substitutes for instruction.

Standard 2.0 Comprehension of Informational Text

Indicator 5. Identify and explain the author's use of language

Objective c. Recognize repetition of words


Select an informational text where the author has repeated words for emphasis of important ideas (for example, Caves: The Wonder Underground by Lisa A. Klobuchar) and explain to the students that often authors of informational text repeat an important word or phrase several times when they want to draw the reader's attention to it. Tell the students that proficient readers focus their attention on these words because it will help them understand the important ideas in the text. If using our example above, Caves: The Wonder Underground, the teacher would enlarge a copy of pages 4 and 5 of the text. Read aloud the text and direct the students to follow along. After reading, circle the word "hole" each time it appears on page 4 and 5 (4). Then show how the author changed "hole" to "cave" on the pages. Count how many times the word "cave" or "caves" appears on these 2 pages (5). Explain how an important idea that the author wants the reader to go away with is the idea that holes in the earth are called caves. Now show the students pages 6 and 7 in the text. Have volunteers read the text out loud. Ask students to identify which words are used the most on these pages (limestone [5],cracks [3], and water [3}). Have students circle the words in the text. Discuss their importance by stating that some caves form when water gets in the cracks of limestone. Provide student pairs with copies of pages 12-15. Direct students to read the text and circle the repeated words. After reading, have students share which words they circled (mineral [8], shapes [8], stalactites [3], stalagmites [3], harden [2] and drip [2]). Help students determine that an important idea on these pages is that the minerals drip and harden in the cave, forming shapes called stalactites and stalagmites. Then in small groups, present students with individual copies of appropriately leveled informational books that have repeated words. See list below for examples of leveled texts related to caves. Chunk the text in a way that fits the learners' needs in the group. Have students determine the repeated words and tell how they help in determining the important ideas in text.

Title of Leveled Text Level Publisher
Caves D Rigby (Sails)
Caves G Continental Press (Seedlings)
Caves I Wright/McGraw Hill (Storyteller)
What are Caves? K Red Brick Learning (Pebble Books)
Inside Caves L Rigby (Sails)
Caves N Capstone Press (Earthforms)
Limestone Caves N Franklin Watts (A First Book)
Inside Caves P ETA Cuiseaire (Scooters)
Caves R Scholastic (Jenny Wood)