School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Curriculum: Reading/ELA, Grade 4

Reading/ELA | Informational | Literary | Writing | Language | Listening | Speaking

Lesson Seeds: The lesson seeds are ideas for the indicator/objective that can be used to build a lesson. Lesson seeds are not meant to be all-inclusive, nor are they substitutes for instruction.

Standard 3.0 Comprehension of Literary Text

Indicator 7. Identify and describe the author's use of language

Objective e. Identify and explain language that appeals to the senses and feelings


The teacher will provide students with a grade-appropriate literary text which is rich in sensory imagery. The teacher and students will read the text aloud noting any instances of imagery. Next, students may select a single image and illustrate that image or find a drawing or photograph which duplicates that image. Students will share their findings or creations with the class and explain how the word image and the drawing/photograph match.

Prior to introducing a sensory rich text with students, the teacher should preview the text to select a single image which appeals to multiple senses. The teacher should introduce the image to students by means of a prediction graphic.

Motorcycle (example)

Sight Sound Smell Hearing Taste

Students should predict a reasonable amount of sensory elements that could be applied to the selected image. Next the teacher should introduce the text where students will read to determine which senses the author used to define the selected image.


Prior to reading a literary text rich in sensory imagery, the teacher will review the meaning of sensory imagery and provide examples of sensory images. As students read, they will be asked to record images from the text and identify the senses to which it appeals. Next, the teacher and students will analyze the image for its contribution to the meaning of the text or its role in the creation of the author's style. Details from the text could be recorded on the following organizer.

Image Sense/s Appealed To Purpose for Image Contribution to Meaning or Style How Contribution is Accomplished


As students read a literary text rich in sensory images, the teacher should indicate selected images to students. The teacher and students should analyze the image by determining the sense/s being appealed to, the narrative element being described through the image, the purpose for the image, the assistance the image gives the reader to understand the text, or the contribution the image gives to the author's style. Finally the teacher and students should determine the effect the image has upon the described narrative element deciding if the image creates a positive, negative, or neutral response in the reader.