School Improvement in Maryland

Using the State Curriculum: Reading/ELA, Grade 7

Reading/ELA | Informational | Literary | Writing | Language | Listening | Speaking

Lesson Seeds: The lesson seeds are ideas for the indicator/objective that can be used to build a lesson. Lesson seeds are not meant to be all-inclusive, nor are they substitutes for instruction.

Standard 2.0 Comprehension of Informational Text

Indicator 5. Analyze purposeful use of language

Objective c. Analyze repetition and variation of specific words and phrases that contribute to meaning


The teacher will preview informational texts to find one where an essential word or phrase is repeated multiple times. First, students will be instructed to read the text to determine its most important idea. Once that has been established through class discussion, students will read the text again while the teacher instructs the underlining of the repetition of the essential word or phrase. Students should focus on the word that is repeated. Finally students should discuss what the author wants the reader to know about the repeated word or phrase or what the author wants the reader to know about the idea with which the repeated word or phrase is associated.


Prior to reading an informational text, the teacher will inform students that what they are about to read will have certain words and/or phrases that will be repeated many times. Students will be asked to brainstorm reasons why an author might repeat a word or phrase in his/her text. Record all answers. Next students should read the text, noting the multiple uses of the word and/or phrase. After reading is complete students should return to their list of suggestions to select and justify one that offers a correct reason for repetition. If a correct response does not exist in the suggestions, then the correct reason should be stated and justified.


Students will be instructed to read a speech where words and/or phrases are repeated multiple times. Students should underline, highlight, or use post-its to identify the repetitions. Once reading is complete, students should determine the main idea of the speech. Then they should return to the repetitions to decide if the repetitions were a way the speech writer drew listeners' attention to the main idea, to the speaker, or to the sound of the language in the speech. A reader's choice of purpose must be justified with text support.


The teacher should assign each student a partner. Each set of partners should receive the same informational passage where certain words and/or phrases are repeated multiple times. Working independently, each student should read the passage, note the repetition of words and/or phrases, and provide a text-based reason for each repetition. When each student is finished he/she should exchange their written findings to compare reasons. If there is a discrepancy, students should discuss their reasoning with each other to find consensus or to understand the other student's reasoning. If all partners in the class have read the same text, they might group themselves according to reasons to see how many different reasons there might be for the repetition and to determine if all reasons are equally valid.