The state must administer annual assessments in reading/language arts and mathematics in grades 3 8 and
at least once in grades 10-12.
The assessments must be aligned with state content standards.
Student performance must be measured against state content standards and must be reported in terms of at
least three proficiency levels.
At least 95% of children
enrolled in a state and 95% of children in each major subgroup must participate
in the assessment.
The assessments must
involve multiple, up-to-date measures of student academic achievement,
and must be designed to report valid and reliable itemized score analyses. The assessments must produce individual
score reports that allow parents and educators to understand and address the
students specific academic needs in an understandable format and, to the
extent practicable, in a language the parent can understand. Results must be reported by the beginning of
the subsequent school year after the assessment was administered.
The assessments must serve as a major component in
setting adequate yearly progress goals for subgroups of students within
schools.Each state, using data from the
2001/2002 school year, was required to establish the baseline for calculating the annual measurable objective (AMO) fpr the years from 2002 to 2014.
Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) is designed to measure the continuous improvement each year toward the NCLB goal of 100% proficiency in 2014. Maryland has set annual Measurable Objectives (AMO's) that all students and the eight subgroups identified in NCLB also need to meet. The intent, therefore, is to ensure that schools direct their instructional improvement efforts toward historically low performing subgroups and, by extension, all low performing students. The goal of 100% proficiency ensures that all students, not just low performing students, are expected to continuously progress.
Where are our students in relationship to the Maryland Content Standards? What evidence do we have?
What is the role of state assessments in providing this information?
A state assessment can determine whether students
are advanced, proficient, or not proficient at the content level. It can classify students reliably on these
three categories with (8) psychometrically sound items for each expectation
within a content area. (The number of expectations or outcomes within a content
area determines the number of items required to reliably assess proficiency for
the entire content area). An annual state assessment program doesn't provide
the information that teachers need to make daily instructional decisions. A teacher needs much more information to
diagnose individual student needs and make decisions about when and what to
A state assessment program needs to
assess the relative success or failure of schools and school systems. The consequences of making an error in the
classification of a school or school system as unsuccessful are serious. The technical goal of a state assessment
program is to minimize the possibility of misclassification. Since the state doesn't have an opportunity
to take multiple measurements, it must minimize classification errors by
strengthening the psychometric properties of the test instrument.
What is the role of the school district in providing this information?
School systems are also limited in the number of measurements they can take of students. Furthermore, they may not have the expertise or staff to design
psychometrically sound testing instruments. They may be supplementing with norm-referenced tests that are not
measuring Maryland's Content Standards. Therefore, the role of the school district in providing this information
is much less than the role of the classroom teachers.
What is the role of the classroom teacher in providing this information?
Teachers collect daily information about where students are in relationship to what is being taught. They use multiple measurements that may
include tests, homework assignments, presentations, or oral responses to questions. They need the diagnostic information to
determine what they need to teach and re-teach and when they need to provide
additional interventions. When teachers give multiple measurements to monitor students progress, the consequences of
an error in any single measurement are relatively minimal.
What do teachers need to know and be able to do to monitor student progress on the Maryland Content Standards?
Teachers need to understand the content standards.
They need to understand how the content standards are organized into more discrete expectations and indicators,
and what students are expected to know and perform at the indicator level in
order to be classified proficient and advanced.
Teachers need to teach the content standards.
All grade/content level teachers need to know which content standard indicators they are responsible for
teaching.They would benefit from having illustrative activities, lesson plans, and performance tasks that model
the teaching of selected indicators.
Teachers need to assess the content standards.
They need to understand that the
content standards are assessed at the indicator level and to understand how to
design observational opportunities for students to demonstrate through performance what they know and can do. When designing these observations, they need
to be able to identify on the cognitive taxonomy table what they are
measuring.Teachers need to be able to
interpret the performance and make decisions about when and what to
re-teach.They would benefit from having
illustrative performance assessments and other observation opportunities as
Teachers need to monitor student progress.
They need to know how to collect appropriate data to track student progress and to diagnose strengths and needs.They need to know how to determine whether a student is making satisfactory progress. They need monitoring tools that are directly related to content standards and the performance expectation of what students should be able to do.
You may also find the following web site information on No Child Left Behind and AYP useful.
How does Maryland implement Adequate Yearly Progress?
No Child Left Behind Web Site published by the U.S. Department of Education
Maryland's Consolidated Accountability Plan (PDF)
Maryland State Department of Education Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook (revised October 2005) for State Grants under Title IX, Part C, Section 9302 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Public Law 107-110) U. S. Department of Education.